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foot and ankle problems

Damage to the cartilage or Osteochondral defects to the ankle joint occur most commonly during sprains and fractures around the ankle.  The twisting motion is violent enough to cause indentations to the cartilage.

This leads to pain as the ankle joint has lost its smooth surface to glide on.  Over longer periods of time, this is a precursor to arthritis of the ankle.



The clinical suspicion will be confirmed by performing radiographs or an MRI.  This will also aid in confirming associated injuries such as fractures and ligament tears.


In addition to reconstructing the torn ligaments, the cartilage will be viewed directly by arthroscopy.  This is a procedure where a small camera is inserted into the joint to view the damage. 

Then various procedures such as mosaicplasty, microfractures and autologous chondrocyte implantation (cartilage transplantation) can be performed.  With the advent of biologics, cytokines and stem cells can also be injected to augment regeneration.

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